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What is the correct form and technique for the single leg db deadlift in detail? I also want to know why one should do it in this way and not differently. What are common mistakes when doing this, why are they harmful and how to fix them.

If there are reasonable technique variations please also mention it and explain the how and why.

Over the web there you can see pictures of multiple different forms which makes you unsure whats correct and whats not. Take for example this picture:

You can see that the standing leg is slightly bend and that the arms are not perpendicular to the ground (as it would be the case in a normal deadlift). However perhaps this makes sense for the single leg deadlift, I don't know.

In the next picture the arms are perpendicular to the ground:

enter image description here

In the next picture only one dumbbell is used and the standing leg is straight:

However I also found images where the dumbbell is in the hand on the side of the standing leg:

I also found this variation which seems to be similar to the regular deadlift:

Is there a rough rule of thumb which gives a relation between the weight you can use in a regular deadlift and that one you can use in a db single leg deadlift?

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In terms of the muscles worked out the bend of the leg in the air should not matter too much, you should try to keep it still though (don't use it for momentum).

IMO you should have the leg up on the opposite side of your arm for better balance. The first person has weights in both hands which is better once you start to get to the heavier weights for balance. The last person seems to be doing a beginers version of the exercise because she lacks the balance to lift her leg off the ground. My suggestion would be to follow the form of the first one. If you have trouble doing it the last one should be easiest.

For the last part of your question I'm not sure if your reffering to a barbell deadlift or one with a kettlebell. But I can tell you either way your one legged deadlift will be significantly less possibly by over 100 pounds depending how high your deadlift is.

For my lifting reference i use exrx, here is a reference to a single leg stiff-leg deadlift

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