The amount of rest that your muscles (in general or one specifically) need to rest after a workout depends on your eating and sleeping habits during the recovery period, level of training ability, as well as the intensity of the workout. That is to say, there is no answer to your query, or more precisely, there are many answers and all of them are correct in different circumstances.
If you're new to lifting and you lift heavy, one or two days of rest is a fine approach. If you're very new and using moderate weights, you might be able to get away with no rest between lifting days, but this is tough to keep going for a substantial period of time. Experienced lifters are also sometimes able to train every day, using careful modulation of training load and diligent recovery efforts. Some lifters split the body into components, so that they can work their upper body on one day and their lower body the next, each one resting while the other half works. As you see, there is no simple answer.