I would bet "no," simply by using common sense. Yes, it is healthy to go barefoot, but to run – or walk, even– on concrete?
It may not show signs of harm right away, but I would bet that it would show up at the end. Our bones, ligaments and tendons are not built for running on a hard surface. Common sense.
The only time I wear more cushioned, supportive shoes is when I am out on the road. The rest of the time I am barefoot or wearing beach shoes, though.
And I think the reason why so many runners get injured isn't due to the traditional shoes but just not paying attention to their running style and their diet.