Set and rep ranges vary based on the immediate goal. Some programs have you vary the sets and reps over the course of the program. But assuming you have enough weight to make the work challenging, here is the rough break down of what rep ranges do for you:
- 1-3 reps: primarily myofibrilar hypertrophy. This helps you build the ability to lift heavier weights, but has minimal impact on size.
- 4-6 reps: general purpose lifting. This has a balance of sarcoplasmic and myofibrilar hypertrophy. Has a some impact on both lifting heavier weights and larger muscle.
- 8-15 reps: primarily sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. This helps you build larger muscles by increasing the energy support systems.
- 16+ reps: muscular endurance. This helps your muscles endure more work.
There isn't a similar list for number of sets, so instead you are looking at the overall volume of work. Volume is the total sets x reps x weight. If you lift 100 lbs for 10 sets of 10, that's 10,000 lbs of volume. You can shuffle things around and they will all be the same volume. For example 200 lbs for 10 sets of 5. Or 100 lbs for 5 sets of 20. You will find that even though it's the same volume of work, you may find some arrangements very difficult or downright impossible like the last option.
Volume is a measure to judge how much fatigue your body is having to deal with. You may find that 10 x 10 at whatever you are using for the weight is difficult but you are able to do it again in a couple days. You may find that it takes a whole week to be able to do it again and feel fresh. As you get stronger, you can do more volume, and recover a little quicker.
If your goal is putting on lots of muscle, 10 sets of 10 reps will definitely help you do that. Just make sure you are eating and sleeping a lot to adjust to the work load.