To the best of my ability, I've not been able to find a study that thoroughly looks into this issue. However, BMI is a poor indicator in and of itself for a multitude of reasons. I'll enumerate some of them: (a) visceral fat is far worse than subcutaneous fat in terms of health. (b) too little fat is also bad for your health, but the odds of your BF% entering the into the essential fat levels is rather small and requires extreme effort or starvation. (c) heart health depends on more than just body fat, Cholesterol levels, stress and cortisol levels, additionally, the amount of cardio that you do has a profound effect on heart health. So, you could have a high BMI a 10% body fat and be a high risk of heart attack. Furthermore, regardless of what the tissue is, any addition of vascular tissue results in greater strain and work that the heart must overcome in order to pump blood through your body. In terms of heart health, BMI is poor indicator as it tells you little more than what you could learn from a mirror. If you're concerned about health, and heart health, consult a physician to have them do a cardiac stress test and run bloodwork. For example, congestive heart failure occurs
As for orthopedic health, BMI correlates better and has a great possibility of causation due to the fact that body mass is among the largest contributors to orthopedic issues after diet, exercise, and genetics (Joint problems). Too much mass and your body will be overstressed, too little mass and your bones will be weaker due to decreased stress loads resulting in less calcium being transferred into the bones (Osteoporosis).
TL::DR: regardless of composition, increased mass results in greater work on the body. Greater persistent work causes greater stress, greater waste, etc. The problem comes with finding balance between exercise and muscle gains (hypertrophy) and inactivity (atrophy). Generally, inactivity is worse for your health than too much body mass. Ultimately, any concerns you have regarding health is best suited for a doctor who can run tests and make objective evaluations in addition to subjective evaluation.
This answer is based largely off of my experience as a paramedic and being a biomedical engineering student with a minor in pre-med. I apologize for not being able to come up with a definitive study, but I suspect there aren't many since high muscle low fat people aren't nearly the health concern as obesity and high fat people.