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To my limited knowledge - you must train differently depending on what you want to achieve. E.g. to lose weight one should do small weight lifting with lots of repetitions (also - according to my limited knowledge). What are the traits of other workout types (gain muscle strength, improve stamina, etc.). And what are the types of workouts in general?

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This is a pretty general question and may be difficult to answer all the key points you're wanting to get at here... might consider asking a more specific set of questions regarding these workouts. –  KronoS Mar 2 '11 at 12:38
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  • To lose weight, burn more calories than you eat. This can be by working out more or eating less.
  • To gain muscle, you need to challenge your muscles. This is most often done by lifting heavy weights. You also need a calorie surplus in order to grow.
  • To improve stamina do the thing that requires stamina longer or more often.

If you interpret "lose weight" as "lose fat" then there's no reason you can't do all three things at once. I don't agree that there are "types" of workouts, just different goals. Someone that just wants to lose fat might just run on a treadmill, but that doesn't mean that lifting weights wouldn't be equally (or even more) effective at that goal.

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