I found a page that lists ligament and cartilage damage, but is it possible that the hyperextension of a joint can leave bone fragments in the joint?
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Hyperextension is a frequent cause of bone bruises. These are very long and painful injuries that disrupt the surface of the bone (they're more like many micro-fractures as opposed to a bruise).
See http://www.beyondprinting.com/sportsmed/PDF/thurs/MRI_TH_06.pdf for some more information on the relationship between bone bruises and hyperextension (it also includes bone bruise causes other than hyperextension).