These are goals that are somewhat in conflict with each other; however, the basic answer to your question has to do with rest.
In order to build bigger and/or stronger muscles, you need to manage both the stress that causes change to happen and the rest that allows the change to happen. Lifting weights is the stress that tells your body that it needs to adapt (get bigger, get stronger, etc.). Rest is just as important. It's during periods of rest that your body is able to hypercompensate and build up the muscle. (Practical Programming for Strength Training, Dr. Kilgore and Mark Rippetoe)
With that basic understanding, it is best to do both your heavy conditioning work and your weight lifting work on the same day. The only time you may consider changing that is very low impact active recovery work. Essentially if you walked your 10k (heart rate in the active recovery zone) on the in-between day, it would help you deplete the lactic acid buildup from your heavy work day. It wouldn't build any speed, but it helps your body recover.
It's always important to order the exercises in your program in order of importance. In short if the conditioning for running is more important than your strength, the order of work should reflect that.
Now, why I said your goals are somewhat in conflict with each other is due to the metabolic pathways needed for the different type of work. Long distance running requires a more aerobic (or mildly anaerobic) metabolic conditioning, whereas weightlifting is primarily anaerobic. Your body will make the best choices it can to balance the demands you are putting on it, but you will not be a great runner or a great lifter. At some point in the future (and it may be years) you will hit a wall and will have to choose which you want to specialize in.