So far, of the books I've read, Practical Programming for Strength Training by Dr. Kilgore and Mark Rippetoe seems to be the closest to what you are asking. The biggest challenge you will find, and it's called out by Dr. Kilgore in the first chapters, is that most exercise and fitness research is spent on beginners and basic levels of fitness. There is little or no money spent in most countries on how to build the best athletes. The one country that did spend money on that would be Russia, but the exercise research isn't the best documented.
In the Practical Programming book, Dr. Kilgore breaks out a lot of basic foundational information:
- Selye's theory on General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
- More modern adaptations of that theory in strength training (includes bodybuilding, power lifting, Olympic lifting, etc.)
- Fatigue, rest, hormonal responses
The second part of the book that has programming tips for people at different levels of training is written by Rippetoe. To be honest, the first foundational part with Dr. Kilgore was more than worth the price of the book, but the second part you could easily find out by looking at different programs targeted for that level of training.
There's quite a few more titles over at http://exrx.net/ that would also bear looking into. Just understand that in the world of strength training, there is more than one valid way to see the types of increases you want.