4 Clarified an acronym I had to Google
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  • Both the muscle-tendon unit and the joint capsule may limit ROM [range of motion]. Flexibility is usually considered the ROM limited by muscle-tendon, and mobility is usually considered the ROM limited by capsule/ligament.
  • Stretching must be differentiated from ROM. There are many individuals who have excellent ROM but never stretch, and many individuals who stretch but continue to have limited ROM. Therefore, different injury rates in people with different ROMs may not be related to the effect of stretching, but rather to the underlying interindividual variation in tissue properties, anatomy, etc.
  • Stretching immediately before exercise may have different effects than stretching at other times and should be considered as a separate intervention. Whereas there is considerable amount of clinical data on stretching immediately before exercise, there is much less data on stretching at other times.
  • Some people claim that negative results in some studies are due to improper stretching technique. Because the effect of stretching are believed to occur through changes in stiffness and ROM, an "improper" technique implies that the ROM is not increased. If ROM is increased without causing an immediate injury, then by definition the stretches were done properly.
  • Warm-up is not synonymous with stretching. In the colloquial sense, warm-up means any activity performed before participating in sport. Used in this sense, stretching is only one component of warm-up, and if stretching is included in the pre-exercise activity, I explicitily state that stretching was used. The other component of warm-up is participating in an activity that requires active muscle contractions. This type of warm-up can be divided into general or sport-specific warm-up. In a general warm-up, the objective is to increase body temperature. ... In sport-specific warmp-up, the acitvity is the same but performed at a lower intensity. Be aware that the mechanism of action will dictacte whether one type of warm-up is superior to another.
  • The term "dynamic stretching" is currently used differently by different people, but in essense it refers to stretching of a muscle by contracting and relaxing the antagonist muscle. One should note that dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching requires the muscles to contract, other possible mechansms include central programming of muscle contraction/coordiantion and decreased fatigue through increased warm-up activity. Those who promote dynamic stretching as a method to prevent injury should provide some evidence that supports their claim.
  • Both the muscle-tendon unit and the joint capsule may limit ROM. Flexibility is usually considered the ROM limited by muscle-tendon, and mobility is usually considered the ROM limited by capsule/ligament.
  • Stretching must be differentiated from ROM. There are many individuals who have excellent ROM but never stretch, and many individuals who stretch but continue to have limited ROM. Therefore, different injury rates in people with different ROMs may not be related to the effect of stretching, but rather to the underlying interindividual variation in tissue properties, anatomy, etc.
  • Stretching immediately before exercise may have different effects than stretching at other times and should be considered as a separate intervention. Whereas there is considerable amount of clinical data on stretching immediately before exercise, there is much less data on stretching at other times.
  • Some people claim that negative results in some studies are due to improper stretching technique. Because the effect of stretching are believed to occur through changes in stiffness and ROM, an "improper" technique implies that the ROM is not increased. If ROM is increased without causing an immediate injury, then by definition the stretches were done properly.
  • Warm-up is not synonymous with stretching. In the colloquial sense, warm-up means any activity performed before participating in sport. Used in this sense, stretching is only one component of warm-up, and if stretching is included in the pre-exercise activity, I explicitily state that stretching was used. The other component of warm-up is participating in an activity that requires active muscle contractions. This type of warm-up can be divided into general or sport-specific warm-up. In a general warm-up, the objective is to increase body temperature. ... In sport-specific warmp-up, the acitvity is the same but performed at a lower intensity. Be aware that the mechanism of action will dictacte whether one type of warm-up is superior to another.
  • The term "dynamic stretching" is currently used differently by different people, but in essense it refers to stretching of a muscle by contracting and relaxing the antagonist muscle. One should note that dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching requires the muscles to contract, other possible mechansms include central programming of muscle contraction/coordiantion and decreased fatigue through increased warm-up activity. Those who promote dynamic stretching as a method to prevent injury should provide some evidence that supports their claim.
  • Both the muscle-tendon unit and the joint capsule may limit ROM [range of motion]. Flexibility is usually considered the ROM limited by muscle-tendon, and mobility is usually considered the ROM limited by capsule/ligament.
  • Stretching must be differentiated from ROM. There are many individuals who have excellent ROM but never stretch, and many individuals who stretch but continue to have limited ROM. Therefore, different injury rates in people with different ROMs may not be related to the effect of stretching, but rather to the underlying interindividual variation in tissue properties, anatomy, etc.
  • Stretching immediately before exercise may have different effects than stretching at other times and should be considered as a separate intervention. Whereas there is considerable amount of clinical data on stretching immediately before exercise, there is much less data on stretching at other times.
  • Some people claim that negative results in some studies are due to improper stretching technique. Because the effect of stretching are believed to occur through changes in stiffness and ROM, an "improper" technique implies that the ROM is not increased. If ROM is increased without causing an immediate injury, then by definition the stretches were done properly.
  • Warm-up is not synonymous with stretching. In the colloquial sense, warm-up means any activity performed before participating in sport. Used in this sense, stretching is only one component of warm-up, and if stretching is included in the pre-exercise activity, I explicitily state that stretching was used. The other component of warm-up is participating in an activity that requires active muscle contractions. This type of warm-up can be divided into general or sport-specific warm-up. In a general warm-up, the objective is to increase body temperature. ... In sport-specific warmp-up, the acitvity is the same but performed at a lower intensity. Be aware that the mechanism of action will dictacte whether one type of warm-up is superior to another.
  • The term "dynamic stretching" is currently used differently by different people, but in essense it refers to stretching of a muscle by contracting and relaxing the antagonist muscle. One should note that dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching includes both classical stretching and warm-up at the same time. Because dynamic stretching requires the muscles to contract, other possible mechansms include central programming of muscle contraction/coordiantion and decreased fatigue through increased warm-up activity. Those who promote dynamic stretching as a method to prevent injury should provide some evidence that supports their claim.
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can be explained by considering the type of sports activity in which an individual participates. Sports involving 'explosive' type skills, with many and maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycles) mvoementsmovements require a muscle-tendon unit which is compliant enough to store and release the high amount of elastic energy. Recently, it has been shown that stretching is able to increase the compliance of human tendons, and as a result increase the capacity of the tendon to absorb energy. Consequently, in these sports we suggest that stretching is important as a prophylactic measure for injury prevention. When an individual's muscle-tendon unit is less flexible in these types of sports activities, there exists a predisposing factor for exercise-related injuries since the tendon is unable to absorb enough energy, which may lead to tendon and/or muscle damage. When the sports activity contains no, or only low SSC movements (cycling, jogging), all or most of the work is directly converted to external work. In these cases, there is no need for a compliant tendon since the amount of energy absorption remains low. Hence, additional stretching exercises to improve the compliance of the tendon may have no beneficial effect on injury prevention.

It must be acknowledged that the aetiology of injuries can be multifactorial. Taking out only one aspect (e.g. stretching) and examining its effect on the incidence of injuries is a rather narrow outlook on this problem. For example, fatigue is widely believed to be predisposing factor in muscle injury. In addition, other problems remain. Even within the same sport,the demands on different players may be different. However, we believe that far greater attention should be given to an examination of the type of activity in which the athlete participates when one considers the merits of stretching to reduce injury.

can be explained by considering the type of sports activity in which an individual participates. Sports involving 'explosive' type skills, with many and maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycles) mvoements require a muscle-tendon unit which is compliant enough to store and release the high amount of elastic energy. Recently, it has been shown that stretching is able to increase the compliance of human tendons, and as a result increase the capacity of the tendon to absorb energy. Consequently, in these sports we suggest that stretching is important as a prophylactic measure for injury prevention. When an individual's muscle-tendon unit is less flexible in these types of sports activities, there exists a predisposing factor for exercise-related injuries since the tendon is unable to absorb enough energy, which may lead to tendon and/or muscle damage. When the sports activity contains no, or only low SSC movements (cycling, jogging), all or most of the work is directly converted to external work. In these cases, there is no need for a compliant tendon since the amount of energy absorption remains low. Hence, additional stretching exercises to improve the compliance of the tendon may have no beneficial effect on injury prevention.

It must be acknowledged that the aetiology of injuries can be multifactorial. Taking out only one aspect (e.g. stretching) and examining its effect on the incidence of injuries is a rather narrow outlook on this problem. For example, fatigue is widely believed to be predisposing factor in muscle injury. In addition, other problems remain. Even within the same sport,the demands on different players may be different. However, we believe that far greater attention should be given to an examination of the type of activity in which the athlete participates when one considers the merits of stretching to reduce injury.

can be explained by considering the type of sports activity in which an individual participates. Sports involving 'explosive' type skills, with many and maximal SSC (stretch-shortening cycles) movements require a muscle-tendon unit which is compliant enough to store and release the high amount of elastic energy. Recently, it has been shown that stretching is able to increase the compliance of human tendons, and as a result increase the capacity of the tendon to absorb energy. Consequently, in these sports we suggest that stretching is important as a prophylactic measure for injury prevention. When an individual's muscle-tendon unit is less flexible in these types of sports activities, there exists a predisposing factor for exercise-related injuries since the tendon is unable to absorb enough energy, which may lead to tendon and/or muscle damage. When the sports activity contains no, or only low SSC movements (cycling, jogging), all or most of the work is directly converted to external work. In these cases, there is no need for a compliant tendon since the amount of energy absorption remains low. Hence, additional stretching exercises to improve the compliance of the tendon may have no beneficial effect on injury prevention.

It must be acknowledged that the aetiology of injuries can be multifactorial. Taking out only one aspect (e.g. stretching) and examining its effect on the incidence of injuries is a rather narrow outlook on this problem. For example, fatigue is widely believed to be predisposing factor in muscle injury. In addition, other problems remain. Even within the same sport,the demands on different players may be different. However, we believe that far greater attention should be given to an examination of the type of activity in which the athlete participates when one considers the merits of stretching to reduce injury.

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Instead, use of stretching as a prevention tool against sports injury has been based on intuition and unsystematic observation rather than scientific evidence. (Source)

aA second major reason that many coaches and athletes still view static stretching as an important preactivity ritual is the belief that it reduces the likelihood of subsequent injury. This belief is based on the idea that a "tight" muscle-tendon unit is less extensible without stretching, which means that its tolerance for elongation is lower, This intuitive concept has resulted in a widespread belief that stretching will prevent muscle and tendon strain (Source)

Like many sports physicians, Dr. Bartoli tells her patients that rather than stretching before physical activity, they should do the sporting activity at 50 percent of the target intensity. (Source)

Instead, use of stretching as a prevention tool against sports injury has been based on intuition and unsystematic observation rather than scientific evidence. Source

a second major reason that many coaches and athletes still view static stretching as an important preactivity ritual is the belief that it reduces the likelihood of subsequent injury. This belief is based on the idea that a "tight" muscle-tendon unit is less extensible without stretching, which means that its tolerance for elongation is lower, This intuitive concept has resulted in a widespread belief that stretching will prevent muscle and tendon strain Source

Like many sports physicians, Dr. Bartoli tells her patients that rather than stretching before physical activity, they should do the sporting activity at 50 percent of the target intensity. Source

Instead, use of stretching as a prevention tool against sports injury has been based on intuition and unsystematic observation rather than scientific evidence. (Source)

A second major reason that many coaches and athletes still view static stretching as an important preactivity ritual is the belief that it reduces the likelihood of subsequent injury. This belief is based on the idea that a "tight" muscle-tendon unit is less extensible without stretching, which means that its tolerance for elongation is lower, This intuitive concept has resulted in a widespread belief that stretching will prevent muscle and tendon strain (Source)

Like many sports physicians, Dr. Bartoli tells her patients that rather than stretching before physical activity, they should do the sporting activity at 50 percent of the target intensity. (Source)

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