1. Can taking calcium supplements increase the risk of a heart attack? advises against calcium supplements, contrary to
  2. Calcium Supplements: Is there any good and no harmful calcium supplement out there?.

I don't know if the food recommendations below yield sufficient calcium:

  1. Veganism: How can one get enough Calcium on a vegan diet without taking supplements or eating/drinking fortified food/drinks?

and 4. Veganism: Ethical, moral and environmental concerns aside, what is the scientific basis of a vegan diet? How do the human body's need for calcium, protien etc get taken care of in a diet devoid of dairy and meat?.

I only ask about calcium citrate, and not other calcium supplements (like calcium carbonate), because

Research shows that they are absorbed equally well with meals, but calcium carbonate is harder to digest than calcium citrate. People are usually advised to take calcium carbonate with or soon after a meal. Calcium citrate can be taken at any time.


The last I heard, calcium supplements are still associated with an increased risk of heart attacks, but no increased risk of strokes or, oddly enough, death from cardiac arrest. This seems to happen regardless of the form of supplementation (citrate has slightly better uptake than carbonate, but still creates increased cardiac risk).

There are vegan sources of calcium, but you're going to be eating a lot of vegetables to get to the proper amount. Somewhere upwards of 10 cups of kale, for example. Only 3 of collard greens.

As regards the scientific basis of veganism, frankly, there really isn't one; it's a philosophical thing. Humans are omnivorous creatures. That's what our body is built for. Agriculture and our massive transport network for food means veganism is survivable, but it really is not natural or scientific.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.