A quick Google brings up: Evaluating Common Weight Training Concepts Associated With Developing Muscular Strength: Truths or Myths? which on bottom of page 92 states:
Powerlifting is not considered a power sport; however, several individuals in
the sport of powerlifting promote the implementation of a power training
program developed by a former U.S.S.R. weightlifting coach Prilepin (37).
The Prilepin chart, which has proven to be a successful strategy for
improving muscular power, was developed specifically for the sport of
weightlifting. In the sport of weightlifting, force and velocity of execution
depends on the load; therefore, selection of the appropriate load is vital for
developing the required muscle quality (e.g., strength, endurance, or power).
The influence of maximal isometric strength on dynamic force and velocity
is greater in high-load slow movements often observed in powerlifting;
therefore, a correlation between maximal velocity and maximal strength has not
been shown to exist (36).
And cites a couple of further papers, so there appears to be some peer reviewed research to support them eg.
Zatsiorsky VM. Biomechanical foundations of strength and power training. In:
Biomechanics in Sport: Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention: Olympic
Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. Vol IX. Zatsiorsky VM, ed. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell,2000. pp. 103–113.
Zatsiorsky VM and Kraemer WJ. TaskSpecific Strength. In: Science and Practice
of Strength Training. Zatsiorsky VM and Kraemer WJ, eds. Champaign, IL: Human
Kinetics, 2006. 18–33.