Kettlebells are a great way to supplement bodyweight work and to start to move into external resistance training. But they don't really work as a substitute for a barbell. You must take the kettlebell on its own terms.
How is a kettlebell different from a barbell? Well, you can't get as heavy a resistance out of a kettlebell. I've heard of hundred-pound 'bells sold as novelties or sources of bragging rights in an overstocked gym, but a barbell setup even in a small home gym cheaply and easily loads to 300 pounds. Second, a barbell can be easily loaded onto the back, even from a standing position, for exercises like back squats. There are many more differences in programming and form and exercise selection, but suffice to say that they're just not good substitutes for each other. If you want the training effect of one tool, use that tool; otherwise use the other. (If lots of muscle recruitment in the deadlift is your goal, then the tool you need is a barbell and a few hundred pounds of weights. A kettlebell can get you a strong back but it takes a lot more exercises and reps than the simple approach of a barbell deadlift.)
Gray Cook has good material on the kettlebell deadlift and perhaps other lifts. Pavel Tsatsouline has good material on the kettlebell front squat, swing, clean-and-jerk, and snatch. I would start with those resources to supply training form and programming.