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I do weight lifting once a week starting with a warm up set of 2kg, then sets of 14kg, and then drop sets. The last time I did was the 17th of October and after that my muscles were sore and now again lifting on the 30th of October I am sore again. I don't understand why my muscles are sore again. I tried to lift 16kg with a 2kg warm up as before and was barely able to do a 3rd rep at 16kg. I know DOMS happens when your body does a new effort of which it is not used to. After the DOMS goes away, does it mean that I have gained more strength than before and my body will adapt to the weight?

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Between the 17th and 30th of October, almost two weeks have passed. That's far too long of a time period for your muscles to really get used to the movements and resistance.

If you want to avoid DOMS, and make better progress, you need to consider working out a lot more often. A good place to start is every 2 days.

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After the DOMS goes away, does it mean that I have gained more strength than before and my body will adapt to the weight?

You might benefit from reading my response to a similar question. Although the question refers to a specific body part, the science behind my answer is still the same. To quote from that answer:

Current research indicates that there is no causal relationship to assume that DOMS/EIMD is a valid indicator for muscular progress (hypertrophy). As a result, I would suggest using a different indicator for your progress.

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