This is of particular interest in intermittent fasting protocols, where one might want to have two feeding episodes, say post noon workout and dinner.
Your body will absorb nearly all the protein that you consume in a meal. Depending on the source, your body will absorb anywhere from 1.3g per hour on the low side (Eggs come in around 3g/hour), up to 8-10g per hour on the high side (whey protein). (Unfortunately, I do not have access to anything but the abstract rather than the full study). Protein stays in the digestive tract for quite a while, which leads to the full (or nearly so) absorption of ingested protein.
The study also appears to address other factors in excessive protein consumption, such as excreting the excess nitrogen and other wastes associated with protein digestion and utilization. However, I cannot confirm since I don't have a source for the full article.
In the abstract they suggest a maximum safe upper limit of:
25% of energy requirements at approximately 2 to 2.5 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), corresponding to 176 g protein per day for an 80 kg individual on a 12,000kJ/d diet. This is well below the theoretical maximum safe intake range for an 80 kg person (285 to 365 g/d).
Note that they give it as a 12,000kJ diet which is in the neighborhood of 2800 calories a day, which is fairly substantial in the average non athlete.
For the question that you cite, I think you're misinterpreting it a bit. You can absorb more, but it may not be beneficial. The cited article in that question reviews a few different studies, and concludes that .75g/lb/day is the highest limit that benefits structural changes (i.e. muscle building). You can eat more safely, and absorb more safely, but it may not really be of any benefit.