I believe you are looking to break down a 10km run into intervals that are suitable for helping you develop anerobic fitness for competing. Hopefully you understand that to improve at X activity, the common advice is to DO X activity A LOT.
However, progression through intervals can be beneficial for a variety of reasons.
The Main types I am aware of:
Heart Rate: Limited and changed by your heart rate, this can vary enormously and be a little fiddly to execute:
Warm up, measure your heart rate after 5 mins gentle jog and 30
seconds fast jog/run. These will be your lower and upper bound
respectfully (imagine mine is lower of 150bpm and upper of 190bpm)
Using a stopwatch, and a known fixed distance you then run for 1/2/3/4
minutes and then jog for 1/2/3/4. The interval length and rest length
progression is up to you but you need to be able to nail your target
heart rates within 10bpm. Once you have nailed it and it becomes
easier then move onto next progression
Jog/Run Linear Progression: 4/1, 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 4/2, 3/2, ...
Linear: Limited by time/distance
Simple to execute and requires no equipment, using the intervals from
the heart rate exercise but this time you do not worry about heart
rate and focus on improving your time over fixed distance (or distance
over fixed time).
With known distances (school track works well here) follow the linear
jog/run progression: 4/1, 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 4/2, 3/2, ...
Aim to improve your distance covered in each of the intervals till you stall on distance and then move up a place in the jog/run progression.
Decreasing Linear: Harder as a single run goes on
This one requires a little measurement on a map first but you
essentially want to break a 9k run down thus:
3k run, 3k jog, 1k run, 1k jog, 300m run, 300m jog, 100m run, 100m
jog, 30m run, 30m jog, run, rest.
Your exercise gets harder as you have less and less rest time between
the intervals. You can also run this in reverse (if you hate yourself
and want to induce fatigue)