would this cause injury?
No more than any other exercise. This all depends on your form. If you are relentlessly contorting your back in order to pull 60kg, then yes, it probably will cause injury.
If you are selecting a moderate weight, and keeping a good, strict form, then no. It probably won't cause injury.
would this make me stronger on this exercise?
That depends on whether or not you achieve progressive overload. If you just use the same weight and same set/rep scheme over and over, then no, it will not make you stronger.
what type of muscle development can be expected?
This is highlighted in your first image. It tells you which muscles are used to facilitate the movement, and these are the muscles that will develop strength and size IF you achieve progressive overload.
sometimes I like doing 10 sets of 10 reps alternating arms of this exercise with 60 Kg
That sounds like way too much. First of all, are you sure they're not 60lb dumbbells? Second, 10 sets of 10 does not sound like a worthwhile use of your time. If you have time to do all that, I'd instead get three different exercises done and get your back muscles developed in a more well-rounded fashion.
what about setting aside one day a week just to do this particular exercise
I recommend against it. Having a day for back exercises per week is absolutely fine, but having a day for one single exercise can be very unproductive if you have goals of say strength and size.
There are some exercises that can be recommended to spend a day on, exclusively, and those are exercises that target a large number of muscles, and give you a large. Ideally, these would be olympic lifts, and possibly deadlift.
If you do want to spend a day on dumbbell rows, I'd suggest not doing it more than one per month. It's OK to do something if it makes you feel good, but everything in moderation. It would be bad if you replaced back day with one single exercise every week.