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I've seen all kinds of barbell collars, and I'd like to know all of them and what the pro/con break downs are if possible. For example, what is this collar:

enter image description here

It kinda looks like an Olympic Russian barbell, but I don't think it is. I've also seen a special cylinder that just slides on the ends.

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I'm not in a position to list all of the different collar types. I don't know why that would be useful knowledge.

But to answer your question of pros/cons:

They all serve the same fundamental purpose. Namely to hold the plates in place and provide a balanced bar.

Spring clip

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In regular commercial gyms, you'll probably find the spring clips. You just grip it so the spring opens a bit, slide it on, and release.

Pros: Easy and intuitive to use. Will hold pretty much any weight regular gym-goers will ever use. Weighs next to nothing, so they don't have to be accounted for when figuring out how much to put on the bar.

Cons: Can not be counted on to hold the weight thrown around by professional powerlifters and olympic lifters.

Collar

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Then there's the bigger collars like the ones we see in your screenshot. It's a sturdier type that slides on, and is fastened by screwing a clamp in place that fastens the collar's grip on the bar.

Pros: Will hold any weight liftable by any human (to date).

Cons: Takes a bit more time to fasten. Weighs a non-trivial amount, and will have to be calculated in as if it were a small plate.

Note

Both types come in a variety of shapes and sizes. There's a plethora of manufacturers, and they all have their own design.

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