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There are so many kinds of protein available in the market that it does your head in . I have done my homework but still not sure as to when to use which one.
Following is what I have understood so far

There are two primary forms in layman (which I am)terms we can call them
Fast Release proteins
and
Slow Release Proteins

Fast Release protiens

They are derived from Whey protein.Whey protein itself is also a form of it and Hydrolyzed Whey Protein Isolate being semi digested with enzymes and is the quickest but most expensive one in the market.
Fast proteins are ideal for Post or Pre-workout and are usually digested in 30 minutes by the body. So after workout peaked metabolism gives the best possible window for this usage.These are best taken with water as milk can slow them down.

Slow Release Proteins

Usually have Casein in them . Which is a substance which becomes a gel in the intestines and slows down the digestion process thus making these proteins slow release.

My question are below

1- Why does it matter how long protein digestion takes? is it because we do not want it to be released faster than body can absorb or needs?

2- I see super fit people at work taking Whey proteins around mid morning or lunch or mid afternoon. I know for the fact these people do not work out at these times. I also do not believe that these people would have less knowledge than myself. But if I am right having a Whey protein shake for lunch when I know they have not worked out in past 6 hours and can not go for run or workout in an other 6 hours is total waste or is it? What am I missing?

3- I am actually looking for weight loss I am thinking of getting a slow 4hour release shake around 9.00Am and an other after lunch time (replacing the lunch) is that right way to go for me . I work out 7.30 AM Monday to Friday.

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1- Why does it matter how long protein digestion takes? is it because we do not want it to be released faster than body can absorb or needs?

It really doesn't. You really should only be drinking protein powder post workout and getting most of your protein from actual food -meat, fish, eggs, dairy products etc. I only recommend protein powder outside of that if it's just not possible to eat normal food.

But if I am right having a Whey protein shake for lunch when I know they have not worked out in past 6 hours and can not go for run or workout in an other 6 hours is total waste or is it? What am I missing?

Just because you see 'super fit' people do something doesn't mean its actually effective or useful. They probably drink their shake as a meal replacement since it's easy, convenient and they think it healthy. Just eat proper meals and you won't have to drink shakes during the day. Also your body is in a constant state of repair/maintenance and in fact anabolism happens way outside of the gym -most during sleep for example.

I am actually looking for weight loss I am thinking of getting a slow 4hour release shake around 9.00Am and an other after lunch time (replacing the lunch) is that right way to go for me . I work out 7.30 AM Monday to Friday.

No need to have a 4hour release gimmick shake. Just eat a proper breakfast and that will be much better 'timed release' plus it will actually be nutritious and filling. The 3 fundamentals of nutrition is calorie, quality and balance. So focus on eating balanced meals at a caloric deficit and you will lose fat.

  • As an aside... Elite athletes can't use more than 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. That means an elite athlete weighing 75 kilograms will not be able to process more than 150 grams of protein per day. The body just processes and excretes most of the excess in urine. – BryceH Dec 20 '12 at 3:25
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    [citation needed] – mike Dec 23 '12 at 4:03
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Why does it matter how long protein digestion takes? is it because we do not want it to be released faster than body can absorb or needs?

From https://redd.it/39xveo (mirror):

  • Article (2014) (mirror): Protein Ingestion Prior to Sleep tl,dr: "[...]the post-exercise increase in muscle protein synthesis rate is not maintained during subsequent overnight sleep. Recent work shows that protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed during the night[...]dietary protein ingestion prior to sleep may represent an effective dietary strategy to inhibit muscle protein breakdown, stimulate muscle protein synthesis, facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training and improve exercise training effectiveness."

  • Study 1 (2000) (mirror): Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Results: "Mean increase in strength for chest, shoulder and legs was 59 +/- 9% for casein and 29 +/- 9% for whey, a significant group difference. This significant difference in body composition and strength is likely due to improved nitrogen retention and overall anticatabolic effects caused by the peptide components of the casein hydrolysate."

  • Study 2 (2012) (mirror): Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Results/conclusion: "During sleep, casein protein was effectively digested and absorbed resulting in a rapid rise in circulating amino acid levels, which were sustained throughout the remainder of the night. Protein ingestion before sleep increased whole-body protein synthesis rates[...]and improved net protein balance[...]This is the first study to show that protein ingested immediately before sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, thereby stimulating muscle protein synthesis and improving whole-body protein balance during postexercise overnight recovery."

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    Excellent answer backed up with science. Well done. – JohnP Apr 29 '17 at 17:24

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