TL;DR - Go read Dan John's stuff
I remember a while back (several years, so my memory of it may be slightly off) I went through a phase of reading books by old time strongmen, especially Eugen Sandow. Admittedly, back then, there wasn't really any research into physical fitness, but one of the ideas that he kept coming back to was how strength training and physical activity would help with living longer.
It is my firm conviction that every young man who has not yet begun life hopelessly handicapped by an inheritance of organic disease, may build up a constitution and health which will enable him to live his life as gladly as does a child; to perform, without undue pain, the part in life Nature has destined for him; and to leave to his offspring, in later years, such a heritage of health as will make them bless his memory - Eugen Sandow
Admittedly he was selling his own physical training routines, so he is going to say that they're beneficial, but bear in mind this was over 100 years ago.
Fast forward to today and it is widely accepted that exercise has many benefits for health, and baring accidents, healthy people tend to live longer than unhealthy people.
Another things to consider, alongside living longer, is quality of life, I don't know about you, but I've seen elderly relatives living out their final years suffering from dementia in nursing homes, barely able to get out of the chair. To me, that's not living, that's just surviving.
But, you were asking for specifics, so, let me introduce you to the Yoda of strength training, Dan John
Dan John writes quite a lot about training for life and life long health (remember, being healthy helps you live longer), but he also covers non-exercise related things. His top 10 tips for living a longer, healthier life?
- Don’t Smoke
- Wear a seatbelt or a helmet
- Learn to fall AND recover
- Eat more protein
- Eat more fiber
- Take more fish oil
- Drink more water
- Floss your teeth
- Build some muscle
- Improve joint mobility
I'm not going to plagiarise his work, but the articles on his website, and his books, are a very solid place to start.
Another option would be the work by Alwyn Cosgrove and Lou Schuler, such as The New Rules of Lifting for Life (disclaimer: I haven't read that one, but I have read most of their other books, and they're very good).
None of this is very specific, but that's because it's not a very specific question. I doubt there is a workout routine out there that will guarantee adding an extra 5 years to your life (if there is, they're probably lying), but there are things you can do to help your chances of living longer, and to improve the quality of the years you do have ahead of you.