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I was recently climbing for a good 4 hours, and afterwards I did weighted pullups (Enough weight to hit my 2RM). I did 6 sets of that, then i did the same with some intense pushup variations, and lots of functional/assistive training.

I noticed that two days later, instead of feeling stronger as usual, I felt MUCH weaker, especially in my shoulders.

This leads me to my question; do the super-compensation phases arrive later if I train harder? And is this an indicator that the training was too much?

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Even if you do 45 hard weekly sets per muscle group you still make hypertrophy and strength progress, actually the more volume you do the more muscle you build, and most people don't even get close to that high volume. it is safe to assume that either higher volume has no effect on super-compensation or that the entire super-compensation theory has no basis and is just an old myth. Here's a study where they tested it.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between low-, moderate-, and high-volume resistance training (RT) protocols in resistance-trained men.

METHODS: Thirty-four healthy resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: a low-volume group (1SET) performing 1 set per exercise per training session (n = 11); a moderate-volume group (3SET) performing 3 sets per exercise per training session (n = 12); or a high-volume group (5SET) performing 5 sets per exercise per training session (n = 11). Training for all routines consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Muscular strength was evaluated with 1 repetition maximum (RM) testing for the squat and bench press. Upper-body muscle endurance was evaluated using 50% of subjects bench press 1RM performed to momentary failure. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated using B-mode ultrasonography for the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, mid-thigh and lateral thigh.

RESULTS: Results showed significant pre-to-post intervention increases in strength and endurance in all groups, with no significant between-group differences. Alternatively, while all groups increased muscle size in most of the measured sites from pre-to-post intervention, significant increases favoring the higher volume conditions were seen for the elbow flexors, mid-thigh, and lateral thigh.

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