I have an office job with a weight bench and dumbbell set nearby, and was wondering if I could expect any strength or muscle gains with very short workouts spaced throughout the day, say, 1 set of 5-10 reps biceps curls. The idea behind this is two-fold: take a break from sitting and get some strength and/or muscle gains. I'm not asking about specific muscle groups. Can I expect any results from very short (i.e. one set) workouts throughout the day?
I think if you are not exercising now, you will benefit (gains) from those reps throughout the day. As for a quantitative analysis of gains expected... I think this will not be easy to find.
From personal experience 3-4 sets with just over 1 min break in between gets me pumped.
I also work in-front of a PC and think your strategy will work well for keeping the shoulder back and building a good posture.
There was a trend (prison push-ups or something) where people would do 200 pushups spread throughout the day, Google it.