I would like to keep training but these days my back pain and sciatica is back again (which I had several years ago).
What are the exercises and movements I can do without hurting my back in the Gym? Biceps, upper back, shoulders, abs, etc.
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Generally speaking the rule of thumb is just to avoid exercises that cause you pain and avoid the obvious ones like deadlift, rowing, and squatting . Otherwise what works for me..
Rest and recover. use a few weeks as back pain and sciatica in many cases in as little as 6 weeks can heal with conservative treatment. If you have chronic pain despite this, then see a dr.
Avoid deadlifting, rowing. or back squatting. Front squats might be ok. avoid standing shoulder presses as it requires too much lower back stabilization. For biceps as long as you stand while focusing on a neutral back you generally wont have issues. If you do. then preacher curls might help as you have the weight supported by the chair or rest pad, and your back isnt being used.
any chest-supported row is great for the upper back. and you can use supinated, pronated grips with a barbell or neutral dumbbells.
abs-you can use anti exercises (either static or dynamic) such as vertical pallov press, lateral pallov press, and regular pallov press. You can also do cable rotations, deadbugs, and even hanging knee raises which you can do in a roman chair with back support.
shoulders you can do front raises. lateral raises. and rear raises.
chest-you can probably get away with doing a dumbbell or barbell bench press if you can keep your back neutral and avoid arching it. otherwise flyes or chest raises(pressing together two weights with your palms in front of you and raising them to in front of you)
Legs- maybe front squats will work. otherwise bulgarian split squats, single leg romanian deadlifts. and single leg glute bridges work well. and allow you to reduce the weight.
Ultimately just see what does and doesnt cause pain. Your back pain might be bad enough to where you might have to do the senior workout by using machines for a while. You can also use high rep schemes with low weight to be easy on your joints.
You can also address the cause of the sciatica.. perhaps you have a curves spine or bad posture, sedentary lifestyle or job, etc..? you can see a sports physical therapist and an orthopedist to see if you can correct it and reduce the pain
Avoiding using your back is a bad idea for managing low back pain and/or sciatica. You should continue to exercise.
Clinical practice guidelines are in near complete agreement that remaining active is one of the most important means of treating lower back pain with or without sciatica, and bed rest is to be avoided.
Exercising your back does not wear it down or damage it, rather it makes it stronger. So you just need to figure out what exercises you can tolerate, by gradually introducing them and testing whether they cause pain or exacerbate your symptoms. If an exercise is uncomfortable at first but that improves throughout the workout, I'd take that as a positive sign. If it only becomes more uncomfortable throughout the workout, or if it causes significantly worse symptoms afterwards, then you may need to make modifications such as reducing range of motion, or choosing different exercises, until you find a selection of exercises that don't worsen your condition.
Basically just experiment and see what works for you, without deliberately trying to avoid using your back.
This video on managing pain in the gym would also be well worth watching: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdwj5ORPmX0