This is not asking about opinions on what everyone thinks is best or their preferences. I'm looking for the most time efficient workout.
Requirement are as follows:
train at least 5 different muscle groups
consume the least amount of time
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There is no "most" time efficient workout. All that exists are preferences, opinions, and thoughts on what is best, because there are easily dozens of ways to accomplish your stated goal and no clear metric by which to differentiate them.
Furthermore, even if there was an ideal workout, it wouldn't apply to everyone. Different people have different needs and abilities so there's very literally no such thing as a universally applicable workout program.
Stop looking for universal ideals. Instead look honestly at your own current situation, desired outcomes, and available tools, then synthesize a solution, try it, and iteratively improve and adapt it over time. If you want help during this process you need to say something about your current state, what works for you, and what doesn't.
Several articles on T nation as well as other fitness experts agree the best workout for mass, strength are 3 day full body workouts with 4 or 5 heavy compound movements replicating the basic 6 motions(pick your reps based on goals):
Posterior chain-(glutes, hamstrings)
This can be done in an hour, so 3 hours a week, you get 3x frequency a week which is very optimal, and all the compound movements will hit every muscle group you have.
Bent over row
Sample day 2:
Edit: I'd like to add that the question is vague, so as far as most time efficient.. it really depends on the person, the goals, etc.. technically a person can workout a majority of their muscles in one 45 minute workout. It's not the best workout by any means but by definition it's time efficient