What are some home workout alternatives to deadlifts? I don't have any gym equipment other than a resistance band.
There is no single alternative to the deadlift, because the whole point of the deadlift is that it does so many things so dramatically.
It can be loaded more than nearly any other exercise. If this is what you're after, then a heavy barbell squat is close. In a home gym, you might be out of luck. Maybe try building an isometric pulling platform.
It works the hamstrings, glutes, lower back, middle back, upper back, and grip. If one of those is what you want, you need to find an exercise that replicates that part of the deadlift. For instance the grip can be targetd with pull-ups or farmer's walks, and the upper back with dumbbell rows.
It's a hinge motion. Home gym hinge exercises include the Jefferson curl, dumbbell/kettlebell swing, and to a much lesser extent "deadlifts" (really a pseudo-deadlift or deadlift-like movement) with an exercise band.
But it's important to remember that few of the best exercises can be simply replaced with another. The greats are great because they're uniquely powerful.
I agree with @DaveLiepmann; the deadlift is irreplaceable. Yet, the motion of a one-legged deadlift with a resistance band might help you mimic the deadlift strength. It is certainly better than nothing.