Let's suppose that you have 2 male humans who are physically fit. One is 500lbs and the other is 300lbs.
Are there some physiological forms that would allow the 300 lb man to be stronger than the 500 lb man?
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Yes. Strength is specific to the measurement being performed, so it's possible that the lighter athlete could just be more trained in the specific movement being performed. For example, a 300lb professional arm wrestler would probably beat a 500lb strongman in an arm wrestling contest.
Even when both are trained in strength test being performed, it's possible for the lighter person to be stronger. As an example, the USPA squat record in the 140kg/308.5lb weight class is 412.5kg, held by Dennis Cornelius, whereas strongman Glenn Ross only has a squat record of 400kg at a bodyweight of 547lb. So in that case, the lighter athlete can out-squat the heavier.