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“Also, glucagon (0.01 and 1 nM) dose-dependently increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis up to 3.7- and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared to control. In addition, glucagon did not change insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake or inhibit lipolysis.” — Direct effects of glucagon on glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipocytes - PubMed

So, does a protein intake-induced Glucagon rise keep regulating lipolysis & fatty acid oxidation despite the protein-induced insulin response while in a nutritional ketosis state?

I have a hard time understanding the last sentence of that quote and conclude, in my layman's words, that protein intake could keep regulating fat mobilization & oxidation in a nutritional ketosis state while, on the other hand stopping muscle catabolism due to parallel insulin response.

In other words, how do lipocytes respond to the presence of both glucagon and insulin at the same time? Do they remain catabolic, or anabolic?


This is directly related to "physical fitness" as in a caloric deficit state it could hypothetically help you maintain or even build muscle while keep on burning fat.

In a fasted nutritional ketosis state, what is the effect of protein intake on muscle and fatty tissues? Anabolic or catabolic?