The point of rest in Tabata protocol workouts isn't to let you fully recover, it's to let you recover a little in order to prolong the length of time you can sustain maximal effort without a dramatic decrease in output. There should never be a question of whether you pushed yourself hard enough during the work phase, because you should be exerting maximal effort. You should be very, very tired from this kind of workout.
The Tabata protocol is 2:1 of work to recovery. Per Wikipedia:
A popular regimen based on a 1996 study by Izumi Tabata (田畑 泉) uses 20 seconds of ultra-intense exercise (at an intensity of about 170% of VO2max) followed by 10 seconds of rest, repeated continuously for 4 minutes (8 cycles). Tabata called this the IE1 protocol.
There are plenty of other timings that work well. As long as the exercise and recovery periods are kept short, and the entire workout is kept fairly short as well, I wouldn't worry too much about the exact ratios. Instead, focus on working harder during those short efforts.