Sometimes I work up a pant and feel my heart pounding and racing and if you would ask me to guess my heart rate I might guess that it was over 90% of my personal max. But I look at my heart rate monitors and it is hardly the case.
Other times I am jogging and I can hardly even notice my heart beating at all, and subjectively my level of cardiac exertion feels quite underwhelming. Naturally then if I was asked to guess I would think that it is perhaps in the 50-70% range of my personal max, yet biometrically it doesn’t seem to be the case and in fact my heart rate monitor reports over 90%.
So there is clearly the phenomenon of objective heart rate which doesn’t necessarily correspond to subjective perception of heart rate.
What objectively measurable variable then would correspond to subjective perception of cardiac exertion?
Tldr: what makes us feel overwhelmed by cardio activity?